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Category: Paleo Diet

  • Slow-Cooked Hawaiian-Style Kalua Pork

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  • Instant Pot Chicken “Noodle” Soup

    Post From https://www.marksdailyapple.com/instant-pot-low-carb-chicken-noodle-soup/

    Chicken noodle soup is comfort food that both adults and kids love. When you don’t have the time or the energy to make long simmered, all-day chicken soup, this is the recipe you need. In about an hour you’ll be slurping noodles from a bowl filled with rich, flavorful broth, chicken and yes, you read that right, noodles.

    Shirataki noodles, a low-carb noodle alternative, make a tasty stir-fry and are eminently delicious in a bowl of soup. These almost flavorless noodles soak up some of the flavor in the broth, which is made using only dark meat for the richest flavor. The shredded thigh meat mixed in with the noodles makes a filling and satisfying bowl of chicken noodle soup. Low-carb, richly flavorful, and quick and easy means that this is chicken noodle soup everyone can love.

    Time in the Kitchen: 1 hour

    Servings: 4 to 6

    Ingredients

    • 2 1/2 pounds bone-in chicken thighs (about 6 thighs/1.1 kg)
    • 2 tablespoons unsalted butter or avocado oil (30 ml)
    • 2 carrots, peeled and sliced into 1/2-inch rounds
    • 2 celery stalks, cut into ½-inch half-moons
    • 1 onion, chopped (either finely diced or bigger chunks, whichever you prefer)
    • 4 garlic cloves, peeled and smashed
    • 2 teaspoons salt (10 ml)
    • 1 teaspoon whole black peppercorns (5 ml)
    • 1 bay leaf
    • 6 cups chicken stock or water (1.6 L)
    • 1 package/7 ounces/200 g shirataki angel hair noodles 

    Instructions

    Using the sauté function on an electric pressure cooker, heat the butter or oil. Add the carrots, celery, onion and garlic. Sauté about 5 minutes, until lightly browned.

    Add the chicken. Season everything in the pot with salt. Add peppercorns and bay leaf. Add the chicken stock or water.

    Lock the lid in place, seal the vent, and cook for 15 minutes on high pressure. Release the pressure manually.

    Use tongs to transfer the chicken to a plate. When the meat is cool enough to handle, shred the meat off the bones, and return the meat to the pot.

    Turn the pressure cooker to “sauté” mode, bringing the broth to a simmer.

    Open the package of shirataki noodles and drain the noodles in a colander. Rinse well under cold water.

    Add the rinsed shirataki noodles to the soup. Simmer 2 to 3 minutes before serving.

    Nutritional Info (per serving):

    • Calories: 238
    • Carbs: 6 grams
    • Fat: 13 grams
    • Protein: 24 grams

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    The post Instant Pot Chicken “Noodle” Soup appeared first on Mark's Daily Apple.

  • LOW CARB BEET KVASS: plant based + fermentation

  • 5 Mindfulness Tips to Curb Sugar Cravings

    Post From http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/PaleoPlan/~3/djl7Adc40iA/

    5-Mindful-Tactics-to-Stop-Sugar-Binges.jpg

    Sugar binges are on the rise, with the average American now eating 22 teaspoons of added sugar every day.

    That number is four times the amount recommended by the American Heart Association and World Health Organization, who suggest that daily added sugar intake should be no more than six teaspoons for women and nine for men. (1)

    Sugar has become ubiquitous in the nation’s diet. While sugar is found in places you’d expect, like cakes, ice cream, and sodas, it’s also loaded in seemingly healthy foods. Think “natural” fruit juices, granola bars, flavored yogurts, and even whole grain bread.

    Sugar is a source of empty calories that leads to weight gain and obesity, and is one of the main culprits behind conditions like type II diabetes, heart disease, and food addiction. Yet, we continue to consume it. Why?


    The Science of Sugar Binges

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    Sugar addiction is as real as being addicted to drugs or alcohol. While 10 years ago that sort of claim would have seemed outlandish, scientific research supports it.

    Some research suggests that refined sugar is more addictive than cocaine, heroin, or morphine. Others show that the more of it we eat, the more of it we crave, thanks to the impact of sugar consumption on the brain’s limbic region. (2, 3, 4)

    Admittedly, some scientists still disagree on sugar being classified as an addictive substance. (5) Unlike illegal drugs, however, sugar is very easy to access for people of all ages, and it’s socially acceptable to consume in high levels every single day. So the cycle continues.


    Your Health Versus Your 3 P.M. Vending Machine Run

    The evidence is clear that sugar is not good for your health, but does that mean that you need to swear off sugar for life? You can, but you likely won’t succeed.

    There is no evidence that shows any ill-effect from avoiding sugar altogether – the main problem is that it’s very challenging to do. So instead of trying to quit cold turkey on your 3 p.m. candy indulgence or after-dinner chocolate, simply commit to being more mindful about how you consume sugar. Try implementing one of the five mindfulness strategies below.


    5 Ways to Cut Sugar with Mindfulness

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    Mindfulness refers to the state of being 100 percent focused on the present moment. Tackling tasks mindfully has been shown to have a calming effect on the body and mind, and keeps you aware of your thoughts, actions, and decisions.

    This awareness of self and surroundings is particularly important when it comes to avoiding sugar binges. The more present you can be during your sugar eating experience, the less likely it is that you will overeat. (6)

    1. Is It Really Sugar That You’re Craving?

    Oftentimes a food craving represents a nutritional deficiency, or a lack of something that you need physically or emotionally. Since the sugar response is one that gives quick energy, lifts the mood, and signals to the brain that a reward has been received, your job is to figure out how to create these same feel-good responses in other ways.

    Some healthy swaps for your sugar craving:

    • Swap eating sugar for energy with drinking a large glass of water, stepping outside and taking in fresh air, or closing your eyes for a quick 10-minute nap.
    • Forget about using sugar as a source of dopamine! You can get the same high from a workout class, completing a project, or even listening to music that gets you pumped up.

    2. When You Eat, Just Eat

    This sage advice is applicable to all meals, but it’s especially important to remember when you’re consuming an addictive substance like sugar.

    Think about the last time that you chowed down a protein bar at your desk, perhaps while answering emails or finishing that spreadsheet:

    • Did you eat it quickly? Probably.
    • Did you savor the taste? Probably not.
    • Did you visually notice how much you had eaten and how much you had left? Unlikely.
    • Did you wish you had another? Undoubtedly.

    Digestion doesn’t begin in the stomach, it begins in the mind. The Cephalic Phase Digestive Response (CPDR) describes the gut-stimulating pleasures of seeing, smelling, and tasting our food. In fact, an estimated 30 percent of digestion is reliant on our full awareness of what we’re eating. (7)

    By eating in a distracted state, you are missing this important element of digestion, which is why you don’t feel satisfied after that bar, even though you’ve had enough to eat.

    Instead, try this:

    Take a 10-minute work time-out to eat your treat. Unwrap the bar intentionally, noticing the texture and smell, and when you do take your first bite, simply hold it in your mouth for a moment, appreciating the taste of what you’re eating. As you swallow, you can feel that bite travel down your throat and into your stomach. Pause and breathe before taking another bite.

    3. Be Wary of Seconds

    A friend once noticed that I took a second piece of dark chocolate from the packet and asked why I wanted it – they thought that the first piece would have satisfied my taste for chocolate. Despite being a little peeved at the time, I have to say that I agree.

    There’s no reason why you can’t enjoy a small quantity of sweet foods if you really enjoy the taste, but is there really any reason to go back for more? Probably not. If you’re still hungry, reach for a healthy snack like raw nuts or fresh fruit instead.

    4. Remove Yourself from Binge-Worthy Situations

    Office donuts, the party snack table, picking from the kids’ plates: these are all opportunities for regretful sugar binges. Fortunately, you can avoid getting caught in these situations by mindfully choosing to remove yourself from the situation, or at least relocating yourself to the other side of the room.

    If you catch yourself distractedly noshing on cookies, cakes and sweets just because they’re lying around, consciously elect to move yourself out of arms’ reach, or consider moving the food out of sight.

    Why does this help? It is much easier to remind yourself that you are choosing to eat more sugar if you have to walk across the room to take another bite.

    5. Consider Your Healthier Alternatives

    Luckily, there are many healthy substitutions for sugary foods. Think about fresh fruit, 80% dark chocolate, and even savory foods like cooked sweet potato.

    Avoiding sugar binges is best achieved by avoiding sugary foods in the first place. While that decision may feel challenging at first, it’s important to point out that it is a decision you can make. Part of living mindfully is choosing to do things that will nourish your body, mind and spirit, and eliminating added sugars falls into that category.

    Eating a healthy, balanced diet will naturally decrease your desire for added sugars because your body will have all of the nutrients it needs to thrive. Couple that with making other healthy lifestyle decisions – such as getting enough sleep, staying hydrated, and investing time in your personal relationships – and it becomes easy to quit your cravings for sugar, once and for all.

    The next time that you catch yourself falling into a sugar binge, put on the brakes.

    • Ask yourself: Is it really sugar that you’re craving? Most likely not.
    • When you do decide to eat a treat, appreciate it and give it 100 percent of your attention.
    • Pass on the seconds and grab a healthy snack instead.
    • Physically remove yourself from binge-worthy situations.
    • Consider your alternatives. Add more nutritious fruits and vegetables onto your plate to decrease any cravings for sugar and naturally increase your energy, health and happiness.

    (Read This Next: How to Cut Out Sugar: 4 Sneaky Ways To Eat Less Sugar)

    The post 5 Mindfulness Tips to Curb Sugar Cravings appeared first on PaleoPlan.

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  • Coffee as a Mediator of Health & Longevity

    Post From https://www.thepaleomom.com/coffee-as-a-mediator-of-health-longevity/

    Coffee is the second most commonly-consumed beverage after water in the world.  In the United States, the majority of US adults consume more than one cup per day. Myth states that the coffee plant was discovered by a goat herder about 850 CE in North Africa, and it was introduced to Europe around the 16th century. Since then, coffee has become an important international trade.

    In the health and wellness community, coffee has been a hot topic for a long time, with both advocates and voices of opposition, and the rest of us sipping away at what we assume is a guilty pleasure.  But, there is a TON of compelling evidence that coffee is good for us, well, most of us… there are some caveats.

     

    From Plantation to Cup

    Coffee is cultivated by plantations that exist all over the world. The most common species of coffee are Coffea arabica and Coffea robusta. For each of these species, there is a difference in their optimal/preferred growing climate, appearance, chemical composition, and resulting coffee beverage. Reports say that the Arabica coffee is generally a “superior cup” quality- and aroma-wise, but Robusta appears to have a stronger flavor with more antioxidants and caffeine.

    So, how does coffee get into our cup? The process starts when coffee fruit matures to bright red berries. Once the fruit is picked, the outer pulp, called the pericarp, is removed by either soaking the fruit in water or by allowing it to dry and then removing the pericarp. The product is then what we call green coffee beans. Green coffee beans are known for their rich antioxidant content, but there are also additional antioxidants created in the roasting process.

    Green coffee beans can be roasted on-site at the plantation or, perhaps, at your local coffee shop. During the roasting process, beans are roasted at temperatures from 350 F to 480 F for anywhere from 2 to 25 minutes. With this, the chemistry of the beans are greatly transformed. Fresh-roasted beans (compared with beans that may have been roasted months ago) are known for better flavor, antioxidant content, and less signs of contamination or molding.  Likewise, fresh-ground beans are believed to have better phytochemistry and better flavor!

    There are many factors that contribute to the taste, aroma, and antioxidant contents of coffee. Some of these include the climate in which the beans are grown, the harvesting and processing of the coffee, and then the roasting and grinding contribute as well.

     

    Coffee for Nerds: the Biochemistry of Coffee

    Coffee beans also contain over 800 known phytochemicals in addition to some uniquely beneficial fiber types (see The Amazing World of Plant Phytochemicals: Why a diet rich in veggies is so important!, The Fiber Manifesto-Part 1 of 5: What Is Fiber and Why Is it Good? and The Fiber Manifesto-Part 2 of 5: The Many Types of Fiber ).

    Here is a brief summary of some of the most important nutrients in coffee:

    Arabinogalactans and galactomannans

    These are two types of fiber contained in coffee (there’s approximately 0.5 g of soluble dietary fiber per one cup of filtered coffee), which are readily fermented by human intestinal bacteria to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFA)s and can expand levels of Bacteroides/Prevotella bacteria (see What Is the Gut Microbiome? And Why Should We Care About It?). In rodents, studies have found that coffee causes an increase in beneficial Bifidobacteria and inhibits the growth of problematic E. coli and Clostridium species. Likewise, a human trial in which 16 healthy adults consumed three cups of coffee daily for three weeks found that Bifidobacterium levels (and in some cases, metabolic activity) increased significantly.

    In one study seeking to explore the mechanisms behind coffee’s association with reduced diabetes risk, researchers examined the effects of chronic coffee consumption on the gut microbiome of rats (some lean and some with diet-induced obesity; some fed standard diets and some fed high-fat diets). The study found that coffee consumption protected against a high fat diet-induced changes in the microbiome (reduction in Lactobacillus levels, increase in the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, increase in Clostridium Cluster XI, and decreased levels of Enterobacteria).

    Chlorogenic acids (CGAs).

    These compounds are known as the most potent antioxidants found in coffee. CGAs are a type of polyphenol, which is a well-known type of antioxidant found in many plants. CGAs are believed to be a major contributor to coffee’s health effects, with the proposed mechanism being CGA impacts cell signaling pathways that contribute to the onset of degenerative diseases. Interestingly, another proposed mechanism is that CGAs act as chemoprotective molecules by impacting the expression of genes that encode for proteins that metabolize xenobiotics into less toxic compounds. CGAs also impact platelet activity and decrease someone’s susceptibility to forming dangerous blood clots.

    An in vitro study of coffee and CGAs also showed that coffee with the highest levels of CGA induced a significant increase in growth of probiotic Bifidobacterium bacteria, while CGA induced a significant proliferation of the Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group. This selective metabolism would likely be beneficial to the microflora composition and the our health as a result.

    Trigonelline.

    This component is more concentrated in green coffee beans, making up about 1% of the dry weight, and some percentage will be lost to the roasting process. Trigonelline has been shown to have the following properties: hypoglycemic (lowers blood sugar), neuroprotective, anti-invasive (protective against cancer), estrogenic, and antibacterial.

    Kahweol & cafestol.

    These two compounds, which are chemically described as diterpenes, are some of the big contributors to the taste of coffee. Drinks richer in kahweol and cafestol are most likely to have a more pleasant flavor. The types of coffee with the highest concentrations of these diterpenes are Scandinavian boiled coffee, French press, and Turkish coffee, and the types with the lowest concentrations are instant and filter coffee. Both kahweol and cafestol are believed the contribute to the cholesterol-raising properties of coffee, though they also have some chemopreventive aspects.

    Melanoidins.

    Coffee beverages are one of the only sources of melanoidins in the human diet! These compounds act similarly to dietary fiber without actually being fiber. Research shows that the amount of coffee melanoidins that reach the colon with heavy coffee consumption is 0.5-2.0 grams; considering how little fiber people consume on average, this is one of the proposed mechanisms for coffee’s anti-colorectal cancer effects.

     

    These compounds are just a small selection of what we find in coffee. It’s amazing that this drink is so chock-full of bioactive compounds, and we are still discovering their implications! That being said, we do know enough about coffee is related to health to have some fun discourse and really dig into the topic.

     

    Coffee’s Relationship with Health & Disease

    We’ve talked a lot about the art and science of how coffee is made, and I’ve alluded some to the health benefits of coffee. I want to dig into the evidence here. So, let’s start with the really big one first: does coffee improve all-cause mortality?

    All-Cause mortality.

    There is a fairly large amount of evidence suggesting that consumption of coffee decreases all-cause mortality. A recent meta-analysis (this kind of study pools the data from multiple studies and re-analyzes them as a group. This is considered one of the gold standard research methods!) looked at coffee consumption and all-cause mortality. The researchers found a 10% risk reduction with consumption at the highest dose: over 7 cups! Still, the optimal risk reduction was with 3 cups of coffee per day at 17%. Considering this is a reflection of risk for death from any cause, this is a hugely important finding! And, in fact, almost every meta-analysis of this kind has found a similar result.

    Interestingly, researchers have also found that high intake of decaffeinated coffee (again, about three cups per day) decreases risk for death from any cause. This certainly points to the theory that our above phytonutrients are driving the benefits, not the caffeine. This also makes a case for the best quality, freshest coffee – that would be richest in antioxidants – having the best effects, too.

    Cardiovascular disease.

    Perhaps not surprisingly based on the above factor, but there is a lot of evidence that coffee is protective against deaths from cardiovascular diseases, too. Specifically, there is a reduction in deaths from cardiovascular disease (19% risk reduction), coronary heart disease (16% risk reduction), and strokes (30% risk reduction!!!) – and, again, we see this in people drinking about three cups a day. While increasing consumption above three cups doesn’t increase harm, it doesn’t show much benefit, either. Importantly, women seem to benefit more than men here.

    Likewise, there is some evidence suggesting that coffee consumption is related to less risk of getting cardiovascular disease, too (10-20% reduction), which is different than death from these diseases, with a consumption rate between three and five cups per day. Unlike mortality, there doesn’t seem to be a relationship with gender.

    Of note is that there isn’t a clear relationship between coffee consumption and high blood pressure. This may be where caffeine comes into play! We know that caffeine can increase blood pressure in the moment by increasing cortisol secretion, but we don’t see that becoming pathological (diagnosable hypertension). See also The Paleo Diet for Cardiovascular Disease

    Diabetes mellitus.

    Believe it or not, one of the best-known relationships in this field is that coffee seems to significantly lower risk for type 2 diabetes (30% reduction!). Importantly, consumption of decaffeinated coffee has a similar effect. Likewise, coffee seems to prevent other metabolic diseases, including metabolic syndrome, kidney stones, and gout. Once again, it seems like antioxidants are the driving factor.  See also The Paleo Diet for Diabetes

    Neurological diseases.

    Coffee consumption robustly reduces risk of Parkinson’s disease (above and beyond whether someone is a smoker, even). Interestingly, this effect is only seen in caffeinated coffee. It appears that coffee also reduces risk for depression and cognitive disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease. While the antioxidant capacity is certainly important here, I also believe that caffeine’s effect of increasing blood circulation to the brain is an important factor, too. Although the research is too sparse to draw any definitive conclusions, some researchers have speculated that the anti-Parkinson’s effects of coffee may be related to its ability to regulate the gut microbiome and return microflora composition to a state that resembles that of patients without Parkinson’s disease.

    Gastrointestinal diseases.

    Interestingly, coffee seems like it could be good for the liver! Studies have found very reduced risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (29% reduction), liver fibrosis (27% reduction), and cirrhosis (39% reduction!!). All of these findings were with high consumption or having one extra cup per day. Coffee also helps with gallbladder health, as high consumers (2-6 cups a day) have lower risk for gallstone disease. See The Link Between Gallbladder Disease and Gluten SensitivityThe Paleo Diet for Gout and What The Heck Does Our Liver Do Anyway? Detoxification Explained.

    What may be the cause of this? Well, there are two underlying reasons. As I’ve talked about a ton here, coffee is insanely rich in antioxidants, and our livers are hugely dependent on antioxidant function in order to detoxify foreign substances and then excrete them into the blood. Coffee could help a lot with this.

    Cancer.

    As I’ve mentioned, there is a strong relationship between coffee consumption and reduced cancer risk. Generally, there is about an 18% reduction in chances of being diagnosed with cancer in high coffee drinkers. Specifically, researchers have found lower risk of prostate cancer, endometrial cancer, melanoma, oral cancer, leukemia, non-melanoma skin cancer, and liver cancer. Importantly, there is some increased risk with high consumption and certain cancers, especially lung cancer. The mediating factor here seems to be dependent on smoking status (something that I would advise against anyways). Risk reduction of death from cancer is much less pronounced at just 2% for non-smokers and no risk reduction for smokers. So, prevention is the key here. See also The Link Between Cancer and Autoimmune Disease and The Link Between Meat and Cancer.

                                                                                                                   

    Cautions & Caveats: When to Avoid Coffee

    Despite the health benefits of coffee, it is not an appropriate choice for everyone. Here are some special considerations (see also Coffee and Autoimmune Disease):

    1. Bad blood lipid profile? Stay away. Here is a really interesting one: it looks like coffee increases LDL cholesterol and triglycerides as well as decreases HDL cholesterol (the good kind). Importantly, this effect was seen with instant and unfiltered coffee. Does this mean that we’re seeing those beneficial effects only in people drinking the best quality coffee? Possibly! Still, people with familial hypercholesterolemia or otherwise imperfect lipids may want to abstain from coffee.
    2. High stress? Coffee isn’t the best coping mechanism. This caveat applies because of the caffeine content in coffee – so this would apply to tea, energy drinks, chocolate, etc. too. As I’ve written before, coffee intake works on the HPA axis and increases cortisol secretions. Caffeine acts to increase cortisol secretion by elevating production of adrenocorticotropic hormone by the pituitary gland. Excessive cortisol production can lead to a variety of health issues, including an overactive immune system, disrupted sleep, impaired digestion, and depression. When we consume caffeine, cortisol level increases (dependent on what your cortisol management is like to begin with and how much caffeine you consume) and can stay elevated for up to six hours. With daily consumption, the body will adapt somewhat and not produce quite as much cortisol, but complete tolerance to caffeine does not occur. Very importantly, if you are a habitual consumer of caffeine, your cortisol will increase more dramatically in response to stress (like that guy cutting you off in traffic) than someone who doesn’t consume caffeine. If you have difficult managing stress as it is, caffeine is not helpful to you. If you’re worried about your current stress levels and adrenal health, you can check out my Demystifying Adrenal Fatigue series.
    3. Got GERD? Skip the cup o’ Joe. Drinking coffee slightly increases our chance of developing gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD or “acid reflux:), so drinking it after being diagnosed with GERD is probably not a good call. On a positive note, there are tons of natural treatments for GERD, and once it gets better and you don’t have the symptoms anymore, there’s no reason to avoid coffee.
    4. Anxious personality? Coffee (and caffeine) may make your mental health worse. Caffeine intake also impacts anxiety. Research in humans and animal models has known that caffeine intake lowers the threshold for feeling anxiety, especially in people who are infrequent drinkers. This effect comes from coffee’s stimulating influence, which impacts both the brain/cognition and other organ systems. For example, people drinking coffee will experience elevated heart rate, and this can mimic the symptoms of anxiety (and then trigger new or higher anxiety). This effect is more likely to be seen in people who are fast metabolizers of caffeine, too: people whose livers process caffeine quickly experience the physiological effects more quickly (and often more intensely). See Genes to Know About: Caffeine Metabolism.
    5. Autoimmune disease? Coffee may not be the right choice. I wrote an entire blog post on this one! If you have an autoimmune disease, please check out the post Coffee and Autoimmune Disease.

    Take-Home Message

    With a few (important) exceptions (again, see Coffee and Autoimmune Disease), there are a lot of good reasons to enjoy coffee. Considerable robust scientific evidence suggests that good-quality coffee consumption up to 3 cups daily provides numerous potential health benefits in a wide variety of organ systems.

     

    Citations

    Bøhn SK, Blomhoff R, Paur I. Coffee and cancer risk, epidemiological evidence, and molecular mechanisms. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2014;58(5):915-30.

    Carman AJ, Dacks PA, Lane RF, Shineman DW, Fillit HM. Current evidence for the use of coffee and caffeine to prevent age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease. J Nutr Health Aging. 2014;18(4):383-92.

    Ding M, Bhupathiraju SN, Chen M, Van dam RM, Hu FB. Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and a dose-response meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(2):569-86.

    Ding M, Bhupathiraju SN, Satija A, Van dam RM, Hu FB. Long-term coffee consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Circulation. 2014;129(6):643-59.

    Giles GE, Spring AM, Urry HL, Moran JM, Mahoney CR, Kanarek RB. Caffeine alters emotion and emotional responses in low habitual caffeine consumers. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2018;96(2):191-199.

    Je Y, Giovannucci E. Coffee consumption and total mortality: a meta-analysis of twenty prospective cohort studies. Br J Nutr. 2014;111(7):1162-73.

    Kim J, Oh SW, Myung SK, et al. Association between coffee intake and gastroesophageal reflux disease: a meta-analysis. Dis Esophagus. 2014;27(4):311-7.

    Löf M, Sandin S, Yin L, Adami HO, Weiderpass E. Prospective study of coffee consumption and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality in Swedish women. Eur J Epidemiol. 2015;30(9):1027-34.

    Panza F, Solfrizzi V, Barulli MR, et al. Coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption and prevention of late-life cognitive decline and dementia: a systematic review. J Nutr Health Aging. 2015;19(3):313-28.

    Poole R, Kennedy OJ, Roderick P, Fallowfield JA, Hayes PC, Parkes J. Coffee consumption and health: umbrella review of meta-analyses of multiple health outcomes. BMJ. 2017;359:j5024.

    Van der mark M, Nijssen PC, Vlaanderen J, et al. A case-control study of the protective effect of alcohol, coffee, and cigarette consumption on Parkinson disease risk: time-since-cessation modifies the effect of tobacco smoking. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(4):e95297.

     

    The post Coffee as a Mediator of Health & Longevity appeared first on The Paleo Mom.

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